Thermal Anomaly of Water, Leybold Products

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Thermal Anomaly of Water, Leybold Products
Educational Materials Chemistry Educational Materials Properties of Matter Learning Activities in Chemistry
Leybold Chemistry Experiments.

  • Material properties
  • Chemical reactions and stoichiometry
  • Water decomposition
  • Water synthesis
Water has a density anomaly: up to a temperature of 4 °C, water has a negative coefficient of expansion, i.e., it shrinks when warmed. After passing through zero at 4 °C, the coefficient of expansion becomes positive. So the density of water reaches a maximum at 4 °C.

In experiment C1.3.3.1, the density maximum of water is proven by measuring its expansion in a vessel with a riser. Starting from room temperature, the complete setup is cooled down in an ice water bath to about 1 °C under constant stirring, or after cooling in a freezer, it is warmed slowly by the ambient temperature. The level h, in a riser with a cross-sectional area A is measured as a function of the water temperature ϑ. Because the change in volume relative to the total volume V0 is small.